The Philippines, a large island archipelago off the coast of Southeast Asia, was colonized by the Spanish in the second half of the 16th century. Resistance to Spanish rule began among Filipino priests, who did not appreciate the Spanish rule of Roman Catholic churches over the islands. In the late 19th century, Filipino intellectuals and the middle class began to demand independence. In 1892, the Katipunan, a secret revolutionary society, was founded in Manila, the Philippine capital on the island of Luzon. The number of members increased considerably, and in August 1896 the Spanish laid out the Katipunan`s plans for rebellion and forced the rebels to act prematurely. Revolts broke out throughout Luzon, and in March 1897 Emilio Aguinaldo, aged 28, became the leader of the rebellion. In addition to the physical destruction and loss of life, the Philippines was divided: there were those who had collaborated with the Japanese, while most had resisted directly or indirectly. The country was divided on whether or not employees should be treated harshly. Many important officials of the pre-war government had served – voluntarily or not – in the Japanese-controlled administration. After its defeat in the Spanish-American War of 1898, Spain ceded its long-time colony of the Philippines to the United States in the Treaty of Paris. On February 4, 1899, just two days before the U.S. Senate ratified the treaty, fighting broke out between U.S.

forces and Filipino nationalists led by Emilio Aguinaldo, who were seeking independence rather than a change of colonial leadership. The ensuing Philippine-American War lasted three years and resulted in the deaths of more than 4,200 U.S. fighters and more than 20,000 Filipino fighters. Up to 200,000 Filipino civilians have died of violence, starvation and disease. In northern Luzon, Caboloan (Pangasinan) (c. 1406-1576) sent emissaries to China in 1406-1411 as a tributary state,[83] and also traded with Japan. [Citation needed] The Chinese archives of this kingdom, called Feng-chia-his-lan (Pangasinan), began when the first tributary king (Wang in Chinese), Kamayin, sent an envoy offering gifts to the Chinese emperor. [84] The state occupies present-day Pangasinan Province. It was locally known as Luyag na Kaboloan (also spelled Caboloan), with Binalatongan as its capital, existed in the fertile valley of the Agno River. It flourished around the same time, the Srivijaya and Majapahit empires emerged in Indonesia, which had extended their influence to much of the Malay archipelago. The Luyag na Kaboloan extended the territory and influence of Pangasinan to the present-day neighboring provinces of Zambales, La Union, Tarlac, Benguet, Nueva Ecija and Nueva Vizcaya.

Pangasinan enjoyed total independence until the Spanish conquest. The Philippine Organic Law was the Basic Law for the Island Government, so called because the civil administration was under the authority of the United States Office of Island Affairs. This government saw its mission as one of the paternalisms that prepared the Philippines for eventual independence. [276] On July 4, 1902, the position of military governor was abolished and full executive power passed from Adna Chaffee, the last military governor, to Taft, who became the first U.S. governor general of the Philippines. [277] U.S. policy toward the Philippines changed with the change of government. [247] In the early years of territorial administration, Americans were reluctant to delegate power to Filipinos, but an elected Philippine assembly was inaugurated in 1907 as the lower house of a bicameral legislature, with the Philippine Nominating Commission becoming the upper house. Period of crisis (December 10, 1898 – October 31, 1899): The United States government officially acquired the Philippines from Spain with the signing of the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898. The U.S. government declared military rule in the Philippines on December 21, 1898. Emilio Aguinaldo, a Filipino nationalist, declared the independence of the Philippines on January 5, 1899.

Emilio Aguinaldo established a rebel government in Malolos on January 23, 1899, and Emilio Aguinaldo was appointed president of the rebel government. .